### Alignment of original texts and translations

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3. Alignment of segments

# Alignment of segments

However, the alignment in our translations goes beyond the general structure of the text. We aim to align the original text and its translations sentence by sentence, so that in all of them each passage is simultaneously highlighted on screen when the cursor moves over them, thus making it easier to locate the exact translation of each one.

To do this, after having established the whole `<div>` structure with its corresponding `@xml:id`, we need to divide the text into segments again, adding the `<seg>`tag. This tag does not indicate canonical divisions of the text, but individual sentences or periods. It is advisable to include at least every complete paragraph, but it is best to make segments within each paragraph by colons or semicolons.

Each `<seg>` that we establish in the original text must correspond exactly to those that we insert in the translations, and they will be identified with parallel `@xml:id` with the same system as the alignment of the `<div>`. (cf. Alineamiento de divisiones).

Let's look at an example in verse:

```EN EL TEXTO ORIGINAL:

<p>
<seg xml:id="la.3.85">
<l n="85">Iamque uenenifero sanguis manare palato</l>
<l n="86">coeperat et uirides aspergine tinxerat herbas;</l>
<l n="87">sed leue uulnus erat, quia se retrahebat ab ictu</l>
<l n="88">laesaque colla dabat retro plagamque sedere</l>
<l n="89">cedendo arcebat nec longius ire sinebat,</l>
<l n="90">donec Agenorides coniectum in guttura ferrum</l>
<l n="91">usque sequens pressit, dum retro quercus eunti</l>
<l n="92">obstitit et fixa est pariter cum robore ceruix.</l>
<l n="93">Pondere serpentis curuata est arbor et ima</l>
<l n="94">parte flagellari gemuit sua robora caudae.</l>
</seg>
<seg xml:id="la.3.95">
<l n="95">Dum spatium uictor uicti considerat hostis,</l>
<l n="96">uox subito audita est (neque erat cognoscere promptum</l>
<l n="97">unde, sed audita est): <g ref="#laquo"/>Quid, Agenore nate, peremptum</l>
<l n="98">serpentem spectas? Et tu spectabere serpens<g ref="#raquo"/>.</l>
</seg>
<seg xml:id="la.3.99">
<l n="99">Ille diu pauidus pariter cum colorem </l>
<l n="100">perdiderat, gelidoque comae terrore rigebant.</l>
<l n="101">Ecce uiri fautrix, superas delapsa per auras,</l>
<l n="102">Pallas adest iubet supponere terrae</l>
<l n="103">uipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri.</l>
</seg>
</p>
</div>

<p>
<seg xml:id="es.3.85">Entonces la sangre comenzó a brotar de su envenenado paladar y con las gotas impregnó la verde hierba; pero la herida era leve porque ponía el cuello herido hacía atrás cuando recibía el golpe e impedía que la herida se formase al no permitirle entrar más en profundidad. Hasta que el Agerónida, persiguiéndola continuamente, le hundió el hierro en la garganta, al tiempo que una encina le impidió retirarse y del mismo modo su cuello fue clavado en el tronco. Se curvó el árbol con el peso de la serpiente y gimió su tronco al ser golpeado por la parte extrema de la cola.</seg>
<seg xml:id="es.3.95">Mientras el vencedor examina la envergadura del enemigo vencido, se escuchó de repente una voz (no era posible saber de dónde procedía, pero se escuchaba) <g ref="#laquo"/>¿por qué, nacido de Agénor, observas a la serpiente que has destruido? También tÚ parecerás una serpiente<g ref="#raquo"/>.</seg>
<seg xml:id="es.3.99">Preso largo tiempo del espanto, había perdido el color a la vez que la razón y se le erizaba el cabello de frío pánico. He aquí que Palas, su protectora, deslizándose por las auras celestes, hace acto de presencia y le ordena que, tras labrar la tierra, siembre en la tierra los dientes de la serpiente, semilla de un futuro pueblo.</seg>
</p>
</div>			```

In the example, a `<p>` appearing from verse 84 of book 3 of Metamorphoses, within the Cadmus episode, has been divided it into three `<seg>`segments. Each `<seg>` carries an `@xml:id` with the canonical numbering of the first verse it contains preceded by the language prefix, so that each one can be different and its location easily recognised.

The `<head>` also contains its `<seg>`, with its unique identifying `@xml:id` .

Note that it is problematic to make a `<seg>` within each verse, since sentences usually jump from one verse to another, and often end in the middle of a verse. Rarely does the translation of a poetic text correspond to the word and line order of the original. The `<seg>` must scrupulously respect the hierarchy of the tags, so if they begin and end inside another, they can be placed inside it, but if they do not, then two or more lines must be grouped inside it, as necessary.

The length of the `<seg>` will depend on each editor. It is preferable to make them as short as possible, but this will involve more work.

It is absolutely essential to check that all the `<seg>` inserted in the original text correspond exactly to those inserted in the translations, the same number but with the corresponding language prefix, or the alignment will not be correct.

Let's look at an example of a prose text, with critical apparatus included, which follows the same system of strict parallelism as the `@xml:id`:

```EN EL TEXTO ORIGINAL:

<div type="section" n="2" xml:id="grc.3.4.2">
<p>
<seg xml:id="grc.3.4.2.1">Κάδμος δὲ ἀνθʼ ὧν ἔκτεινεν ἀίδιον ἐνιαυτὸν ἐθήτευσεν Ἄρει· ἦν δὲ ὁ ἐνιαυτὸς τότε ὀκτὼ ἔτη.</seg>
<seg xml:id="grc.3.4.2.2">μετὰ δὲ τὴν θητείαν Ἀθηνᾶ αὐτῷ τὴν βασιλείαν κατεσκεύασε, Ζεὺς δὲ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ γυναῖκα Ἁρμονίαν, Ἀφροδίτης καὶ Ἄρεος θυγατέρα. καὶ πάντες θεοὶ καταλιπόντες τὸν οὐρανόν, ἐν τῇ Καδμείᾳ τὸν γάμον εὐωχούμενοι καθύμνησαν.</seg>
<seg xml:id="grc.3.4.2.3">ἔδωκε δὲ αὐτῇ Κάδμος πέπλον καὶ τὸν ἡφαιστότευκτον ὅρμον, ὃν ὑπὸ Ἡφαίστου λέγουσί τινες δοθῆναι Κάδμῳ, Φερεκύδης δὲ ὑπὸ Εὐρώπης· ὃν παρὰ Διὸς αὐτὴν λαβεῖν.</seg>
<seg xml:id="grc.3.4.2.4">γίνονται δὲ Κάδμῳ θυγατέρες μὲν Αὐτονόη Ἰνὼ Σεμέλη Ἀγαυή, παῖς δὲ Πολύδωρος. Ἰνὼ μὲν οὖν Ἀθάμας ἔγημεν, Αὐτονόην δὲ Ἀρισταῖος, Ἀγαυὴν δὲ
<app>
<lem>Ἐχίων</lem>
<rdg wit="#A">ἐχέων</rdg>
</app>
.</seg>
</p>
</div>

<div type="section" n="2" xml:id="es.3.4.2">
<p>
<seg xml:id="es.3.4.2.1">Cadmo, por haberlos matado, debía servir a Ares durante un año perdurable, que comprendía ocho años actuales.</seg>
<seg xml:id="es.3.4.2.2">Después de servir a Ares, Atenea le otorgó el reino, Zeus le dió como mujer a Harmonía, hija de Ares y Afrodita, y todos los dioses dejaron el cielo y cantaron para celebrar el enlace en Cadmea.</seg>
<seg xml:id="es.3.4.2.3">A ella Cadmo le regaló un peplo y un collar realizado por Hefesto, del cual algunos decían que había sido entregado a Cadmo por Hefesto, otros por Europa, a quien se lo habría dado Zeus.</seg>
<seg xml:id="es.3.4.2.4">Tuvo Cadmo cuatro hijas: Autónoe, Ino, Sémele y Ágave, y un hijo: Polidoro. Atamante desposó a Ino, Aristeo a Autónoe, Equión a Ágave.</seg>
</p>
</div>

<div type="section" n="2" xml:id="it.3.4.2">
<p>
<seg xml:id="it.3.4.2.1">Per espiare la loro morte, Cadmo dovette servire Ares per un lunghissimo anno: per "anno" si intendeva, allora, un anno che durava otto degli anni normali.</seg>
<seg xml:id="it.3.4.2.2">Dopo il periodo della servitù, Atena gli assicurò il regno e Zeus gli diede in moglie Armonia, figlia di Ares e di Afrodite. Tutti gli dei lasciarono il cielo per cantare al banchetto di nozze, a Cadmea.</seg>
<seg xml:id="it.3.4.2.3">Ad Armonia, Cadmo donò un peplo e una collana, opera di Efesto: secondo alcuni Cadmo la ricevette da Efesto, secondo Ferecide da Europa, che la ebbe da Zeus.</seg>
<seg xml:id="it.3.4.2.4">A Cadmo nascono quattro figlie, Autonoe, Ino, Semele e Agave, e un figlio, Polidoro. Ino sposò Atamante, Autonoe Aristeo e Agave Echione.</seg>
</p>
</div>```

In these cases, as there is no canonical numbering for individual paragraphs or sentences, for the `<seg>` within each paragraph or sentence, a new consecutive numbering system has been invented, starting from the canonical book, chapter and section numbers above. Each editor can choose the numbering system of the `<seg>` numbering system as they see fit, always respecting the syntax of `@xml:id` (cf. @xml:id). We must scrupulously conserve that numbering in tagging the translations.