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Bibliographic Citation Rules

Place of publication

Always in the language in which it appears in the publication itself.

Journal Abbreviations

We follow the standard of L’Année Philologique – Sigles.

Names of Modern Authors and Editors

These are indicated by Surname and initials of the Forenames. They are abbreviated, with no space between initials when they are compound names.

In publications with two or more authors or editors, the names are separated by commas, and the last name is joined with an ampersand (&⁠amp;), to avoid confusion with compound surnames.

If you do not wish to cite all the authors, because there are more than three, the abbreviation et alii.can be used. For this, we need to add the attribute @style="etal" to the tag <author> or <editor>. Seethe examples of citations that we use.

Compound or Complicated Surnames

Prepositions, articles, conjunctions, etc., are not part of the forename, but of the surname, and must appear in their correct place, albeit in lower case, since the surname is indexed by the head word. Thus, «de la Cosa, M.» is indexed as «Cosa», «von Albrecht, M.» is indexed as «Albrecht». «D’Ors, M.» would be indexed as «D’Ors», since the preposition does not function as such, and will be in capitals. In each case it is best to see how an author cites his or herself in one of their own books.

If the surname is hyphenated, the short hyphen is used, the normal one that is inserted directly from the keyboard, without spaces: «García-López, P.».

Ancient Works Published, Translated or Annotated

These are cited by the name of the editor, translator or commentator.

Works Reeditions

The two main dates are indicated in the date, that of the first edition and that of the edition we are actually citing, indicating the edition number, separated by a forward slash (/).

Titles in English

All words are capitalised except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions.

Words in Italics

Generally, the elements that tend to appear in italics in a bibliographical reference are the titles of books or periodicals, but in our case it is not necessary to indicate this.

However, it is often necessary to cite the title of a work within the title of an article or a book, and to avoid nesting one <title> tag within another, we simply mark this word with the highlighter <hi>. (Cf. for more information).

Publishing Places

If there is more than one, they are written separated by a forward slash (/), without spaces.

Pages and Page Numbers Cited

They should not be preceded by «pp.».

The en-dash is used to indicate pagination ranges (en-dash): «–», «120–145». On Windows systems it is inserted using the keys Ctrl+- (numerical minus sign); on MacOs systems, it is inserted using alt+- (normal dash). For more information on the correct dash in each language, see Dash – Wikipedia.

Uris and DOIs

Whenever they exist and we can locate them, we must indicate the DOI (Document Object Identifier) of journal articles and the URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) of all publications that we cite, following the citation models that appear in this guide.

In the case of the DOI, it is important to write only the specific number of the document, not the complete URL.


You do not have to write anything between the tags that identify each part of the bibliographic entry, since the system takes care of putting the necessary punctuation marks in the final representations.

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